• Number of the week: 82%

    GIF: Karolina Uskakovych.

    Le Havre has long been nicknamed “Stalingrad-on-Sea”. To the eyes of many, its straight avenues lined with identical grey concrete buildings, built after the Second World War, were depressing and the city was considered one of the ugliest in France.

    Towns on the Normandy coast paid the highest toll to the war: they were massively bombed, and Le Havre suffered the most destruction. 82% of the buildings were razed.

    In the place of the ruins, architect Auguste Perret created a giant experiment. This was long criticised, but the inhabitants have since managed to change the way the city is seen, and obtained a UNESCO World Heritage listing in 2005.

    This article is part of the "A long and thorny road from war" edition
    Bosnian war leaves rifts and trauma
    Spain's battle with memory
    It’s not enough
    Number of the week: 82%
    Another war scar in the making